Report on Human Rights Practices Country of Tuvalu

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Article 42 of the Labour and Employment Relations Act 6 , 7.

Remarks on the Release of the 2017 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work. Article 44 of the Labour and Employment Relations Act 6 , 7. Prohibition of Forced Labor.

Prohibition of Child Trafficking. Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities. Section 46 of the Labour and Employment Relations Act 7.

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Compulsory Education Age. Education Order Free Public Education. Free Education Policy 6. During the reporting period, the Department of Labor, along with the ILO, conducted consultations on ratifying international labor conventions and implementing its international commitments with the government and NGO stakeholders.

The Government of Tuvalu has not specified, by national law or regulation, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children; previous provisions only applied to a male person under the age of 18 in the industry, mining, and fishing sectors. Although child trafficking is prohibited in Tuvalu, the law prescribes a harsher punishment for individuals involved in the trafficking of adults than for those involved in the trafficking of children.

Laws in Tuvalu do not ensure free basic education, but there is a policy that provides for free basic education. The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor Table 5. However, gaps exist within the operations of the Department of Labor that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Department of Labor. Enforces labor laws, including those related to child labor. Tuvalu Police Force.

Tuvalu–United States relations - Wikipedia

Investigates and enforces criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Labor Law Enforcement. In , labor law enforcement agencies in Tuvalu took actions to combat child labor Table 6. However, gaps exist within the operations of the Department of Labor that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.


Table 6. Overview of Labor Law Enforcement. Labor Inspectorate Funding. Unknown 6. Number of Labor Inspectors. Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties. Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors. Refresher Courses Provided. Yes 6. Number of Labor Inspections Conducted. Number Conducted at Worksite. Number of Child Labor Violations Found. Routine Inspections Conducted. Routine Inspections Targeted. Unannounced Inspections Permitted. Yes 2. Unannounced Inspections Conducted. Complaint Mechanism Exists. Unknown 2.

In , the Government of Tuvalu doubled the number of labor inspectors from two to four. Despite adding new labor inspectors, insufficient financial resources hampered the labor inspectorate's capacity to formally monitor and enforce child labor laws, leaving the government to rely on local communities to report potential offenses.

Criminal Law Enforcement. Research did not find information on whether criminal law enforcement agencies in Tuvalu took actions to combat child labor Table 7. Table 7. Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement. Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators.

Number of Investigations. Number of Violations Found. Number of Prosecutions Initiated. Number of Convictions. Unknown During the reporting period, the U.

Embassy in Suva provided trafficking-in-persons training to the Tuvalu Police Force. The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor Table 8. Table 8. Coordinating Body. Coordinates child protection issues and implements the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Free Education Policy. Establishes free basic education for children ages 6 through The government has established policies related to child labor Table 9.

However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies. Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor. A multinational strategic framework program consisting of 14 South Pacific nations to address, develop, and implement strategic economic development priorities in the South Pacific, including eliminating child labor and the worst forms of child labor. Child Protection Work Plan.

Includes the drafting of a Child Protection Bill and a Child Protection in Schools Policy, with implementation plans and cost estimates. Involves public relations activities, such as awareness raising and advocacy. The research is expected to determine the prevalence and causes of child protection issues. In , the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor Table However, gaps exist in these social programs, including programs addressing child labor in the fishing sector.

Table Multi-country program in 14 Pacific Island countries. Aligned with the UN Pacific Strategy — Decent Work Country Program. Education for All Program. Australian Government-funded program to improve access to quality education in Tuvalu. Objectives include increasing capacities in education planning and administration, teacher training, and early grade literacy.

Government-funded programs that provide vocational training to children who have finished compulsory primary education. Research found no evidence of programs to specifically address child labor in the fishing sector. Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Tuvalu Table Suggested Action. Year s Suggested.

The factory "workers" are biological agents that turn the skeletons of corals and other carbonate-containing creatures into sediment. Fish, sea urchins, and sponges are the principal processors. In one year they can produce four pounds of sediment per square foot 21 kilograms per square meter of reef. Coral rubble, here washed up on the shores of Fongafale, is the building material of reef islands.

Mollusks, calcium-secreting algae, and tiny marine creatures called foraminifera add to the sediment supply. Tepuka's beaches have an orange tinge from billions of foraminifera skeletons. Geomorphologists, who study landforms, speak of an island's "carbonate budget"—its sedimentary profit-and-loss account. On the income side of the ledger is the rubble, gravel, and sand produced by the reef ecosystem or imported into it, by storms, for instance. On the expenditure side is sediment lost by being abraded to microscopic fineness, dissolved in seawater, or exported by waves or currents into the deep ocean.

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The budget can stay more or less balanced for decades, centuries, even millennia, and then experience a sudden blowout, as when Cyclone Bebe hit Funafuti in Overnight the storm deposited a mile kilometer ridge of coral rubble up to 13 feet 4 meters high. That material was worked into the matrix of several reef islands on the southeastern side of the atoll—the side that took the brunt of Bebe's force—increasing the land area by 10 percent.

Tepuka, on the western side, missed out on the Bebe deposit and is one of a handful of Funafuti's islands that have been shrinking. On the ocean side of the island, a three-foot-high one meter scarp of sandy soil up against the vegetation showed where wave action was scouring away the land.

I'd seen this kind of erosion on island coastlines elsewhere in the world and had assumed it was evidence of irreversible loss. But Kench's work offers a different narrative: abrasion on one side of an island, accretion on the other, with entire islands shifting on their reef platforms in response to wind, waves, and sea-level change.

Yes, islands erode, Kench says, and that's often what people focus on: broad beaches where they used to play soccer as kids now reduced to a narrow patch of sand. Or perhaps the edge of a property crumbling into the sea.