Refraction (Quick Physics Review) (Quick Review Notes)
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The Review Session
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Reflection and Refraction
Special Issues. Haiming Yu Jean-Philippe Ansermet Featured Articles. Resolving power of image forming systems: Telescope and Microscope Diffraction by multiple slits: Diffraction Grating Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic wave as the transverse wave: phase factor Electromagnetic waves at the interface of two dielectric mediums Fresnel's equations Brewster's angle Randomly polarized light Representation of polarized light in Jones calculus Circularly polarized light Change of polarization at metallic surface Elliptically polarized light Polarization of light by reflection Phenomena of double refraction Propagation of light through birefringent crystal Retardation Plate Quarter wave plate Spontaneous and stimulated emission of radiation Population Inversion Main Features of laser Ruby Laser Basic Concepts: holography Holography Applications Optical Fibres characterstics Fibre design issues Fibre attributes Numerical aperture Cables attributes: Attenuation Now that we have completed the experimental protocol, let's review how to analyze the data obtained.
In the first experiment, we measured the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction at the water-air interface. By using the Snell's law and substituting the values for these angles into the equation, along with the refractive index of air, we can calculate the refractive index of water, which comes out to be 1. This calculation can then be repeated for the various incident and refraction angles.
The average of all the calculated refractive indices will provide a more accurate measurement of the index of refraction of water.
Basic Waves Theory - Pass My Exams: Easy exam revision notes for GSCE Physics
We can also calculate the critical angle for total internal reflection using Snell's law. This is the incidence angle when the refraction angle equals 90 degrees. Rearrange this equation to solve for critical angle. Using the previously calculated average for the refractive index of water, Snell's law predicts that the critical angle of incidence is This is very close to the angle measured experimentally, thus verifying Snell's law.
When the light beam is projected from air to water, total internal reflection does not occur even at angles greater than In the experiment with the lenses, the thin lens equation reveals that for an object distance of In the case where the object is observed through a convex lens, at a distance less than its focal length, a magnified version of the object is observed. This is a virtual image, as this image cannot be captured on a screen.
Similarly, when using the concave lens, a demagnified virtual image of the object is observed.
Optics, specifically optical lenses, is used in every walk of life from photography to medical imaging to the human eye. Optical fibers are used for data transmission in many current day applications, like transmission of telephone signals. These fibers consist of a core, cladding, and a protective outer coating or buffer, and other strengthening layers. The cladding guides the data in the form of light pulses along the core using the method of total internal reflection.
This property of data transmission enables fiber optic cameras used by doctors to view confined spaces in human body. Microscopy is the field of using microscopes to view objects that are not visible to the naked eye. Optical or light microscopy involves passing visible light, which is refracted through or reflected from the sample, through a single or multiple lenses to allow a magnified view of the sample.
The resulting image can be detected directly by the eye, or captured digitally. You've just watched JoVE's introduction to reflection and refraction.
The Speed of Light
You should now understand the principles of refraction, Snell's law, and total internal reflection and also the theory behind lenses and how they create images. As always, thanks for watching! The measured incident and refracted angles at the water-air interface are given in Table 1. The calculation can be repeated for the various angles in Table 1 , and the average of the measurements will provide an even better measurement of the index of refraction than any of the individual measurements will provide.
It is worthwhile to note that the refracted beam could still be observed at an angle greater than It is only at the boundary at which the beam went from the water to the air that the beam was internally reflected at angles greater than Total internal reflection can only occur when light goes from a medium with a high index of refraction to a medium with a lower index of refraction. The thin lens equation then reveals the focal length of the convex lens to be about 5.
This lab explores the physics of refraction and lenses. The phenomenon of total internal reflection at the water-air interface was also observed. It was shown that concave lenses can focus light and also create virtual images, allowing them to serve as magnification devices. The human eye sees by focusing light onto the retina, and poor vision can result if the light focuses in front of or behind the retina. Eyeglasses help to correct poor vision by properly refocusing the light onto the retina.
Cameras use a lens to focus light onto a sensor the same way that eyes focus light onto the retina. Magnifying glasses are simply convex lenses that create enlarged, virtual images of objects. Optical microscopes use multiple lenses to immensely magnify small objects, such as cells.
Similarly, there is a type of telescope called a refractor that uses lenses to capture the light from stars, galaxies, and other astrophysical objects. Total internal reflection is used most often in the form of optical fibers, which are used for data transmission and as fiberscopes. To learn more about our GDPR policies click here. If you want more info regarding data storage, please contact gdpr jove. Principles When light hits the interface between two materials, it is bent by some angle that depends on the composition of the two materials.
Given the focal length of a lens, the distance between the object and the lens will determine the location of the image according to the thin lens equation: Where f is the focal length of the lens in meters m , o is the distance between the lens and object in meters m , and i is the distance between the lens and image in meters m. Procedure 1. Obtain a specialized refraction tank with a light source.
Fill the refraction tank with water and turn on the light source. Direct the beam from the light source into the half of the tank filled with water.
It may be necessary to dim the lights in the room. As the incident angle is increased, one will notice that the refracted light beam can no longer be seen in the half of the container containing air. Slowly rotate the light source about the tank until the point at which the light beam first disappears from the air is reached.
This is the critical angle for total internal reflection. If the light source is further rotated, it should be observed that the beam reflects back into the water.
Move the light source so that the beam enters the half of the tank filled with air first before traveling into the water. Record a few angles of incidence and refraction under this condition. Note that, previously, the angle of incidence was the angle at which the light traveled through the water. Since the light is now going through the air first, the new angle of incidence is the angle at which it travels through the air, and the new angle of refraction is the angle at which it travels through the water. Observe that total internal reflection does not occur in this configuration.
Total internal reflection only occurs when light goes from a medium with a high index of refraction to a medium with a lower index of refraction.
Obtain a convex lens, a concave lens, a sheet of white paper, a ruler, and a small distinctive object. It also helps to have an optical bench with holders for the lenses and object as well as an apparatus to hold the sheet of paper vertically.